Frequently Asked Questions
Who is Max-Ox?
The Max-Ox Group was established by Groundwater & Environmental Services (GES) to serve as a remediation technologies and services provider to consultants, businesses, and government clients requiring specialized engineering expertise, innovative technologies, safe performance, and hands-on technical field services for their remediation projects in the U.S. and abroad.
The Max-Ox Group has emerged from GES’ Innovative Remediation Solutions Program (IRSP), which has long built a reputation on the development and implementation of innovative and aggressive remediation technologies, services, and resources designed to accelerate site cleanup.
Beginning in 1996 with the introduction of the first DAPL real-time feasibility platform, the group later expanded its R&D efforts to in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) technologies. Highly-effective proprietary aggressive technologies were developed to remediate contaminant impact at costs significantly below conventional methods: HypeAir for short-term, aggressive ISCO remediation of soil and groundwater and HypeAir-EX for continuous ISCO. The Max-Ox Group of technologies and services has grown to include Six-Phase Chemical Oxidation, Red-Duc reductive remediation, SmartVac SVE optimization, and many other specialty remediation services. These technologies have been a successful part of site remediation at over 1,000 sites since that time, including more than 300 ISCO sites and over 500 in-situ feasibility tests.
Who installs the Max-Ox Points?
Max-Ox Points are engineered exclusively by the Max-Ox Group to deliver a combination of highly-effective oxidizing or reducing agents via permanent injection wells for maximum oxidant distribution in the subsurface. If desired, the Max-Ox Group can complete the installation of the Max-Ox points at your site or you can have the points installed yourself during well construction.
What does the HypeAir (and HypeAir-EX) patent cover?
The HypeAir and HypeAir-EX patent (U.S. Patent #7,175,770) covers the combination of oxidant injection techniques to produce the hydroxyl radical, including:
- Ozone and hydrogen peroxide injection;
- Hydrogen peroxide and persulfate;
- Hydrogen peroxide and ferrous sulfate;
- And other oxidant injection techniques that produce the hydroxyl radical.
These patents cover both in-situ and ex-situ techniques, as well as single and nested injection points. For in-situ chemical oxidation, either single or nested injection points are typically used. In most cases, we use a combination of gas and liquid injection to effectively distribute the oxidants under pressure throughout the impacted soil and groundwater. The injected gas acts as a carrier, aiding distribution of the liquid oxidant into the formation and greatly increasing the effective radius-of-influence (ROI). The injected gas, when utilized, also provides agitation to facilitate greater contact between contaminants and oxidizing or reducing agents (increased scrubbing/washing effects). However, gas-assisted injected in not always required as per the patent, especially in the case of activating sodium persulfate (or other persulfates) with hydrogen peroxide.
How do I determine if chemical oxidation is a potentially viable technology for my site?
Any chemical oxidation technology is limited by the ability to inject and distribute the reactants in the subsurface. There are also many health and safety concerns to consider when using a chemical oxidation process. The Max-Ox Group has experienced professionals and unique feasibility testing equipment (DAPL), which is a critical step in technology selection.
To request a site evaluation to determine if chemical oxidation is a viable technology at your specific site, please fill out a Site Evaluation / RFP Form.
Alternatively, if you wish to speak with a Max-Ox Group associate, you could Contact Us directly for more information.
Do you always use persulfate?
We utilize activated persulfate at approximately 10% of sites. We do not inject sodium persulfate near utilities or metal features in the ground due to corrosive concerns.
How do I learn more about the Max-Ox processes?
To date, the Max-Ox Group has completed over 1,400 remediation projects. Our Resources page provides a wide variety of information/education materials, case studies and technical videos.
The Max-Ox Group is also available to give web presentations or technical presentations at your office location or our office. To request an on-site presentation or web presentation, please Request Onsite or Web Presentation.
What does the HypeAir and HypeAir-EX equipment consist of?
The Max-Ox Group owns six HypeAir and HypeAir-EX platforms capable of mobile, short-term and long-term ozone and hydrogen peroxide injection: two HypeAir box-trucks, two HypeAir skid-mounted units, one HypeAir-EX trailer and one 80-pound/day ozone generation unit.
What is the Six-Phase Oxidation process?
The Max-Ox Group’s patented Six-Phase Chemical Oxidation technology is an enhanced option to HypeAir or HypeAir-EX applications with the addition of sodium persulfate injection. Sodium persulfate reacts with hydrogen peroxide to form additional hydroxyl radicals and sulfate free radicals yielding six oxidizing species for the rapid remediation of contaminants. Six-Phase refers to the six species of oxidants: ozone, hydrogen peroxide, oxygen, sodium persulfate, hydroxyl free radicals, and sulfate free radicals. The Max-Ox Group owns the first patent in our industry that discusses hydrogen peroxide and persulfate injection chemistry for soil and groundwater remediation.
How effective is Max-Ox chemical oxidation in treating chlorinated compounds?
The Max-Ox chemical oxidation process is effective on many chlorinated compounds (such as chlorinated ethenes). Unlike most other technologies, it is extremely effective on compounds such as PCE, TCE, vinyl chloride, and 1,4-dioxane. Numerous chlorinated compounds can be oxidized, and the patented Max-Ox process uses the liquid and gas injection combination to increase oxidant delivery efficacy over less aggressive processes. Other chlorinated compounds (such as chlorinated ethanes) can be remediated with our patent-pending Red-Duc reductive process. With our experience and bench-scale and pilot-scale testing capabilities, the Max-Ox Group will work with you to identify the most appropriate solution for your site. In some cases, our recommendation may be to utilize conventional technologies instead of oxidation or reductive techniques, unlike typical technology vendors who are trying to sell their products.
Will groundwater temperature significantly increase as a result of the Max-Ox chemical oxidation process?
No, the Max-Ox process does not generate significant temperature increases in the subsurface. The Max-Ox process is not a highly exothermic process like traditional Fenton’s chemistry. In most instances, the observed temperature rise is less than 5°F.
How effective is Max-Ox chemical oxidation when applied in clay and bedrock subsurface conditions?
The Max-Ox chemical oxidation process has been successfully applied to numerous clay and bedrock sites for a variety of compounds. When applying chemical injection to these sites, understanding of the subsurface is critical. Field pilot-scale testing results are used to determine a site-specific chemical injection design and plan. . The HypeAir and HypeAir-EX technologies have been used effectively in clays. If pilot testing is successful, the final system may require closely spaced injection points to effectively treat the source area.
For hydrocarbon sites, do you need injection points off-site to treat the leading edge of the dissolved phase plume?
Typically, we do not require off-site injection points if the majority of the contaminant source is on-site. The significantly increased dissolved oxygen concentrations will usually enhance the bioremediation of the off-site plume. We usually see microorganism plate counts increase orders of magnitude off-site due to the dissolved oxygen enhancement.
Does the DAPL unit include vapor or groundwater treatment?
No, the DAPL does not have on-board treatment (e.g., liquid or vapor-phase carbon); however, we can provide treatment as appropriate to meet your discharge limits.
Does the DAPL unit have on-board analytical capabilities?
No, the DAPL is setup with numerous sampling ports for quick and easy groundwater or vapor sample collection. Samples are then sent to a laboratory of your choice for analysis. The DAPL does have an integrated PID to monitor vapor concentrations during testing and to compare with laboratory analytical data.
What is the maximum distance the wireless transmitters can send data from a remote observation well back to the DAPL unit?
We have successfully used the wireless wellhead setups at distances up to 100 feet.